Critical Thinking and Argumentation
Sustainable Development Goals
? to critically react to what they read in books, journals, newspapers or on the internet;
? to judge the quality of a speech or of a lecture;
? to actively participate in classes and seminars;
? to build an argument of their own;
? to write an essay in defense of a certain conclusion.
Arguments conclusions and reasons
Language vagueness and ambiguity
Definitions Facts and values
Objective and subjective judgements
Representing arguments with diagrams
Does the conclusion follow from the premises?
Probability in the premises
Strong and weak inductions
Principles of rational discussion
Common mistakes in the assessment of premises
Good and bad appeals to authority
Mistaking the person for the argument
Disjunctive and Conditional claims and how to deny them
Necessary and sufficient conditions
Reasoning from an hypothesis
Objecting and refuting
Presenting and assessing counter-examples
Formal fallacies and fallacies with respect to content
Reasoning by analogy Numbers graphs averages
Analysis of argumentative techniques.
Discussion of examples.
Written tests and essays.
- João Tiago Reis Pedroso de Lima [responsible]